Ulm im Dreißigjährigen Krieg: Die Lehre von den Säften und Qualitäten

In den Schriften der großen Mediziner Hippokrates, Galen und Avicenna ist ein ausgedehntes Viererschema zu erkennen, welches sich vorzüglich eignet, die menschliche Konstitution zu erklären. Danach gibt es vier Elemente (Luft, Wasser, Erde, Feuer), aus denen alles von Gott Erschaffene besteht, und vier Qualitäten (warm, kalt, feucht und trocken). Den Elementen lassen sich vier Qualitätenpaare zuordnen: So ist beispielsweise das Element Feuer warm und trocken. Der Mensch besitzt nun vier Kardinalssäfte in seinem Körper: Blut, Schleim, dunkle und helle Galle. Sie sind, wie in der Abbildung zu erkennen, ebenfalls den einzelnen Qualitätenpaaren zugeordnet.

Viererschema der Humoralpathologie oder Säftelehre; Rechte: Michael Schnell

Viererschema der Humoralpathologie oder Säftelehre; Rechte: Michael Schnell

Die menschliche Gesundheit ergibt sich aus dem Gleichgewicht der Säfte, dieses Gleichgewicht wiederum aus folgenden Faktoren, wie Galen erklärt:

  • dem Kontakt mit der den Menschen umgebenden Luft,
  • der Bewegung und der Ruhe des Körpers oder seiner einzelnen Teile,
  • Schlafen und Wachen,
  • der aufgenommene Nahrung,
  • den Ausscheidungen und die zurückbehaltenen Produkte und
  • den Gemütsbewegungen.

Diese Faktoren bilden die sogenannte Diät oder rechte Lebensweise. Das wünschenswerte Gleichgewicht der Säfte und seiner Qualitäten erreicht der Mensch nur durch eine ausgeglichene Lebensweise. Zuviel Schlaf ist ebenso schädlich wie zuviel Aufregung usw.

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